The Lapps (Same or Samians), whose ethnic origin is the subject of dispute but who are probably part Mongol, live in northern Sweden, Norway and Finland and in Karelia (part of which is in the Soviet Union). Their semi-nomadic way of life, focused on reindeer herding, which is now gradually being abandoned, has produced a rich and distinctive folk art’, but this, like folk traditions in other countries, is threatened by the progress of modern life.


Reflecting their varied geological and climatic conditions, the economies of the four Scandinavian countries differ considerably from one another.

LAPLAND MAP Photo Gallery

Legends say they are the souls of dead mariners, so they may be trying to tell us something. Fulmars were first seen on the Farnes in 1919, but there are still only a dozen or so pairs breeding on the Inner Farnes and Staple. They are 18 in. (46 cm) long and the plumage is white with a grey mantle (back) and tail and no black. They are a very quiet bird, except in colonies, when they will then really let you know they are there. Having no nesting material, the pair lays one large white egg on a rocky ledge or in a slight hollow in turf. Their food is fish, oily offal and refuse and the parents protect their young by projecting a foul-smelling oily liquid at any intruders. Anybody who has been boat-angling at sea will have noticed that the fulmar is one of the first birds to come to the boat and, once you start gutting fish, is cheeky enough to waddle right up to the anglers to grab the first morsels. Four out of five of the species of tern that visit the British Isles breed on the Farne Islands. The most numerous species is the Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), not the common tern (Sterna hirundo) as might be expected.

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