Kevin Murray RMIT University.
One of the conditions of recent urbanization in a globalized world is an increasing distance of consumers from sources of material production. Compared to traditional village lifestyles, where production such as agriculture and craft is embedded in everyday life, the goods used in cities are derived from supply chains that span many different countries (Jayne 2006). By way of example, Snyder (2007) documents the production of denim from cotton-growing in Azerbaijan to garment assembly in Cambodia. In broad terms, manufacture has been offshored' from West to East.
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1 This global distribution of production often entails a distance from the origins of consumer goods, particularly for those who live in western cities. Dependence on the lower standards of workers is less obvious when they live on the other side of the world. While this removal of the industrial scene has previously occurred at the level of mass manufacture, with factories moving from global West to East, it is now beginning to affect handmade craft production, previously a quintessentially local activity. Craft practice thus expands beyond the production of traditional objects sold for local use or to tourists as souvenirs. It now involves bespoke handmade production such as one-off commissions and customization. This chapter considers craft in this broader sense of the application of skill in the making of decorative objects by hand.
Should this distance from production be viewed as a natural evolution or a convenient distantiation of economic inequity? On the one hand, this specialization is celebrated in the concept of a smart nation' whose fortune is based increasingly on an information economy. Concepts such as Richard Florida's (2005) creative class' identify sources of growth in design rather than manufacture, thus modes and methods of production are somewhat overlooked in the interests of fostering smart' creative economies. The idea is that while western cities may have lost their factories to offshore production, they can retain their economic advantage through innovation, gaining income through licensing of designs and receiving royalties.
Everything is examined there and the custom-duties paid, Sydney Subway Map whence it comes that the ships ride there 8, 10 to 14 days and even longer at Sydney Subway Map anchor, till they have taken in their full cargoes. During that time every one is compelled to spend his last remaining money and to consume his little stock of provisions which had been reserved for the sea; so that most passengers, finding themselves on the ocean where they would be in greater need of them, must greatly suffer from hunger and want. Many suffer want already on the water between Holland and Old England. When the ships have for the last time weighed their anchors near the city of Kaupp Cowes in Old England, the real misery begins with the long voyage. For from there the ships, unless they have good wind, must often sail 8, 9, 10 to 12 weeks before they reach Philadelphia. But even with the best wind the voyage lasts 7 weeks.