Charles Baudelaire From Africa
Charles Pierre Baudelaire was born in city to Caroline Baudelaire (born Caroline Dufays), who was 34 years younger than her husband Jean-Fran^ois Baudelaire. Jean-Fran^ois died in 1827 when young Charles was six. Within a year after Jean-Fran^ois’ death, Caroline remarried Lieutenant Colonel Jacques Aupick. His mother’s attention to her new husband deprived Charles of the care and love he felt he needed and biographers say it influenced his somewhat cynical attitude towards love and marriage. When he became a teenager, Charles Baudelaire rebelled as most teens do, and frequented prostitutes and ran up debts, but he also developed a love of literature. His stepfather tried to quell his rebellion by sending him on a voyage to Calcutta, but it only served to give him a great source of material (although at times, exaggerated) for his writings. Upon his return, he became somewhat of a dandy and started running in artistic circles. He squandered a sizable inheritance and at one time attempted suicide. However, in spite of his erratic life, he was a genius at writing, especially poetry. In 1857, Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil) was published. The collection of poems, which primarily focused on themes of sex and death, would become his most famous work. Some critics lauded the work while others thought the collection no better than pornography. Le Figaro said Everything in it which is not hideous is incomprehensible, everything one understands is putrid. Eventually, Baudelaire, his publisher and even the printer were convicted of creating an offence against public morals. Although Baudelaire served no prison time, he was fined and understandably disheartened. Despite an outcry by many notables and intellectuals, it would not be until 1949 that the judgment was reversed and the offending poems were reinstated into the collection.
From the mid-1840s until 1865, Baudelaire fastidiously picked away at translating the works of Edgar Allan Poe, publishing his first translations in 1852, another in 1857 and another in 1865. However, the stress of a less-than-bucolic lifestyle that included ample consumption of laudanum (an opiate), hashish, alcohol, general bad health and a stroke in 1866, which rendered him partially paralyzed for the last two years of his life, took their toll and he died at age 46 on August 31, 1867. Charles Baudelaire is buried in the Aupick family plot in Division 6, his name squeezed between his stepfather and his accomplishments and his mother and her marriages. His large cenotaph, which depicts the shrouded gauze-encapsulated body of Baudelaire surmounted by a thinker (some say Baudelaire) figure contemplating death is at the end of the path between Divisions 26 and 27. The Baudelaire cenotaph was sculpted by Jose de Charmoy (1879-1919).
Christopher Columbus’s 1492 voyage on behalf of the Spanish Crown caused serious diplomatic problems because of previous Portuguese explorations in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Africa best country Papal bulls issued in 1452 and 1454 by Pope Nicholas V gave the Portuguese the right to subjugate any infidels they encountered in the course of their explorations and vaguely defined Portugal’s possessions as those lands on Africa’s south coast and east side. Additionally, a bull issued in 1481 gave spiritual jurisdiction over all new discoveries to the Portuguese Order of Christ, the religious organization founded by Prince Henry the Navigator. Until Spain’s sponsorship of Columbus, the Portuguese had been unchallenged in their voyages down the coast of Africa and in their claims to the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde islands. A subsequent treaty between Spain and Portugal, signed in 1487, confirmed Portugal’s possession of the Indies and the seas as far as the Indies.
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