Province: Oulun laani (UleSborgs IanOulu). Altitude: sea level. Population: 1 00,000.
Postal code: S F-90100. Telephone code: 9 81.
HOTELS. Vaakuna, Hallituskatu 1,430 SP; Arina, Pakkahuoneenkatu 1 6, 95 Hospiz, Asemakatu 31, 60 Tulli-HoteHi, Rautatienkatu 11, 60 Kaup-pahotelli, Asemakatu 7, 120 Otokyla, Haapanatie 2, 176 b. (June-August); Oulas, Rautatienkatu 8, 46 b. YOUTH HOSTEL Two CAMP SITES.
EVENTS. Skirace (March); Winter Games (March); Oulu Races (May); Oulu Regatta (July); Rock Festival (July); Northern Finland Car Rally (November).
RECREATION and SPORTS. Golf, riding, tennis, skiing.
The industrial town of Oulu (Swedish UleSborg), capital of its province and the see of a bishop, lies on the Gulf of Bothnia at the mouth of the Oulujoki. It has a University founded in 1959.
HISTORY. Toward the end ofthe 1 6th cž King John
III of Sweden built a castle (Finnish linna) on an island at the mouth of the river, now known as Linnansaari, and the town grew up around this island, receiving its municipal charter in 1610. It was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1822, and was rebuilt on a plan prepared by C. L. Engel.
SIGHTS. At the N end of the busy Kirkkokatu stands the Cathedral (Engel, 1 830-2; interior renovated and decorated with paintings in 1 932), To the left ofthe entrance a monument by Waino Aaltonen commemorates those who fell in the fight for liberation in 1918. In the gardens in front of the church is a bronze bust (by E. Stenberg) of the Finnish-Swedish poet and bishop, F. M. Franzen (1772-1847), a native of Oulu. On the N side of the gardens, at No. 3 Linnankatu, are the Provincial Government Offices (Laanin-hallitus, 1888). From the N end of Kirkkokatu, a small bridge leads into the beautiful Ainola Park, on an island. In the W half of the island is a handsome building (1 930) which houses the Municipal Library (Kirjasto) and the Provincial Museum, with historical and ethnographic collections. A stone in front of the building commemorates the woman writer, Saara Wacklin (1790-1846), who was born in Oulu. To the N are the Botanic Garden and a summer theatre.
SW ofthe Cathedral, in Hallituskatu, is the Town House (Kaupungintalo, 1894),and beyond it, in Torikatu, the old Town House, now the police headquarters. To the W, on the banks of the Oulujoki, lies the spacious Market Square (Kaup-patori), with the Theatre (1 974) which is also used as a convention hall. To the N is the Bus Station. Just E of the Market square, two bridges lead on to Linnansaari (Castle Island), where there are the sparse remains of the castle (built 1590, destroyed by an explosion in 1793); summer restaurant. The road continues over another arm of the river to the island of Raatinsaari (park, a stadium, an indoor swimming pool). Another bridge runs N, on to the island of Toivoneimi, which has a modern residential district designed by Alvar Aalto; on the E side of this district is a hydroelectric power station which uses the water of the Merikoski, the rapidly flowing lowest reach of the Oulujoki. A fourth bridge leads to the suburb of Tuira, on the N bank of the river, with a number of schools. In the N part
Modern apartment houses, Oulu of the town (Puolivalinkangas) is the Water-Tower (lookout platform). SURROUNDINGS. 20 km (12 miles) N, near the coast, is Haukipudas (Samantta Hotel, 47 b.), with,a wooden church (1762) containing wall paintings by the well-known Finnish church painter, Mikael Toppelius. 1 3 km (8 miles) SE of Oulu, on the left bank ofthe Oulujoki, is the Turkansaari Open-Air Museum (also accessible by boat from Oulu), with more than 20 old buildings, including a church (1 694). The road continues to Muhos, with the oldest wooden church in Finland (1634); 6 km (4 miles) upstream is the Pyhakoski power station. 75km (47 miles) SWof Oulu, onthecoast, lies Raahe (Swedish Brahestad: pop. 14,000; Tiiranlinna Hotel, 160 b.), founded by Per Brahe in 1649. In the Pekkatori is a statue of Per Brahe, a copy of the original in Turku. The town was rebuilt in 181 0 after a fire, and has houses dating from that period. The interesting Museum (founded 1862) has a collection of material concerning ships and seafaring, as well as objects brought back by seamen from their voyages. The church (J. Stenbeck, 1912) has an altarpiece by the painter, E. Jarnefelt (1 863-1 937).