In the 19th c. many Swedish painters went to Dusseldorf and later to Paris for training. Notable among them were the landscape artist C. J. Fahlcrantz (1774-1861), Peter Krafft the Younger, a German (1777-1863), C. Wahlbom (1810-58), A. Wahlberg (1834-1906) and above all the greatest of modern Swedish painters, Anders Zorn (1860-1 920), who also produced etchings.
In Denmark, where landscape painting was a favourite genre, impressive and original work was done by Jens Juel (1745-1802), N. A. Abildgaard (1743-1809) and Christopher Wilhelm Eckersberg (1783-1853). Eckersberg in particular influenced the next generation of painters. About 1800 the Copenhagen Academy attracted many German painters, among them the neo-classicist A. J.1 Carstens and the Romantic artists P. O. Runge and C. D. Friedrich. Christen Kobke (1810-58) took up the inheritance of C. W. Eckersberg, and among a large number of lesser artists the names of Vilhelm Marstrand (1810-73) and Kristian Zahrtmann (1843-1917) may be mentioned. Two notable figures at the end of the 19th c. were Vilhelm Ham-mershoi (1864-1916) and Peter Severin Kroyer (1851-1909), the latter a practitioner of Impressionism. Joakim Skovgaard (1856-1916) renewed the art of monumental religious painting (frescoes in Viborg Cathedral).
Scandinavia has played a prominent role in 20th c. architecture. During the 1920s and 1930s a close to the earth style of architecture was popular family houses, terraced houses, the bakkehuse (hill houses) of the Danish architect Ivar Bentsen (1876-1943). The international Functionalism of Gunnar Asplund (1885-1940), however, made increasing headway, with such buildings as the exhibition halls for the Stockholm Exhibition of 1930 (light, airy structures of glass and steel), Stockholm Municipal Library (1924-7) and an extension of Goteborg (Gothenburg) Town Hall (1934-7). Sven Markehus built the Concert Hall in Helsingborg (1936). The ideas of the Swedish Arts and Crafts Association on modern design were the starting point of a distinctive Scandinavian school of interior decoration and the design of everyday articles and utensils.
The basic types of housing developed in Sweden were various forms of tower block (Orebro, 1948-50; Danviksklippen, by S. Backstrom and L. Reinius, 1945). The best known of Stockholm’s satellite towns is Vallingby.
Perhaps the best known Danish architect was Arne Jacobsen (1902-71), who was responsible for new town halls at Arhus (1941) and Mainz (1969).
Among leading Danish sculptors of the 20th c. are Robert Jacobsen (b, 1917), who works in metal; Kai Nielsen (1882-1924), creator of a new monumental style; Bengt Sorensen (b. 1923), Gunnar Westmann (b. 1915) and Svend W. Hansen (b. 1922). The youngest generation of sculptors follows current post-war trends.
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