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CODEX of VISIONS. The Codex of Visions consists of three parts: the first presents the first three visions of the Shepherd of Hermas, a well-known text, the second the visio Dorothei the the most important text in the codex and the third, eight poems by various unknown authors. The codex as a whole was compiled probably in the 1st quarter of the 5th c. in the region of Panopolis in Egypt, while the visio and poems were composed in the 1st half of the 4th c., shortly after Dorotheus’s martyrdom during the reign of Diocletian. Some scholars defend the historicity of the person Dorotheus, and suppose that he himself is the author of the vision of Dorotheus; others think of a community, probably of clerics, who compiled the texts out of veneration for the martyr, perhaps for liturgical use. The theme of the codex is spiritual martyrdom, contrition, humility and penitence as a means of reintegration into the church after a grave sin.

In the early nineteenth century, though few Seminoles had participated in the Creek Wars, General Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish Florida and burned Seminole towns and the towns of their neighbors of African descent. Zimbabwe Map Tourist Attractions In the 1820s, facing pressure from the United States which gained Florida in 1821 some Seminoles began to consider moving to lands west of the Mississippi. Most Seminoles chose to remain in Florida, and the result was the Second Seminole War (18351842), which was the longest and costliest of the United States’ nineteenth-century Indian Wars. By the 1840s, most Seminoles lived in Indian Territory, where they re-established their culture and government. Several hundred Seminoles remained in Florida’s swamps, and others, under Wildcat and John Horse the leader of a black town migrated to northern Mexico. Matthew Jennings See also: Native Country-European Conflict; Native Country-European Relations; Native Countrys. Bibliography McReynolds, Edwin C. The Seminoles. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957. Sattler, Richard A. “Seminole.” In Encyclopedia of North Country Indians, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. Wright, J. Leitch, Jr. Creeks and Seminoles: The Destruction and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986.

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