The lovers died in the twelfth Alington century, so how did they wind up in Pere-Lachaise early in the nineteenth century? Heloise and Abelard were actually part of a marketing campaign. In 1817 Pere-Lachaise’s prime planner, Nicolas Frochot, brokered a deal to move the supposed remains of long-dead authors Moliere and La Fontaine from Alexandre Lenoir’s Museum of French Monuments. Heloise and Abelard were the icing on the marketing cake. It was actually a three-for-one trade.
Previously, in 1806, workers who were demolishing the Capucine convent near place Vendome happened on the coffin of Louise de Lorraine, Henri III’s queen. (the coffin was actually found in a crypt that had been repurposed into a latrine). Somehow Frochot came into possession of the coffin and transported it to Pere-Lachaise. A decade later, in a show of good will, Frochot gave the remains to Louis XVIII and he transported what was left of Louise de Lorraine to Saint-Denis with great pomp and ceremony. The intricacies of the negotiations and political maneuvering essentially meant that Frochot traded Louise de Lorraine for Moliere, La Fontaine and Heloise and Abelard.
The move to Pere-Lachaise was supposedly Heloise and Abelard’s sixth move and presumably their last. With all the moving around, nobody knows absolutely for sure if the bones are really those of Heloise and Abelard, but nobody’s asking questions either. Louise de Lorraine is resting with her fellow nobles a few miles away at the Basilica of Saint-Denis.
Heloise and Abelard’s tomb was designed by Alexander Lenoir, incorporating stones from the ruins of the Oratory of the Paraclete. The cross-topped Gothic revival tomb is a hybrid of a castrum doloris (castle of grief) and a small chapel. Their recumbent bodies are praying, facing upwards towards the heavens. Many of the architectural elements are executed in threes (the fleur-de-lis, the trefoil and the three lobed arches), representing the Holy Trinity.
The ministry, appalled by Massachusetts’s defiance, moved 4,000 troops into Boston significantly, two regiments recently employed in Ireland to put down a tax protest on malt and dispatched naval patrols to Boston Harbor. Alington Map Tourist Attractions Samuel Adams advocated resistance to the troops, but they landed without incident and took up garrison duty in the resentful city, which was required to quarter and feed them. This situation led directly to the Boston Massacre of 1770, as colonial dissatisfaction took the form of riots over seized ships ( John Hancock’s smuggler, Liberty, was taken) and harassment of customs officials, leading to more hostile relations with the troops. Moved by Dickinson and Adams and by fear of the growing enforcement powers of the government in London, increasing numbers of colonists signed nonimportation agreements against all British goods, which eventually convinced merchants to lobby the ministry in 1770. All but one of the Townshend Acts were repealed on April 12, 1770. For the British politicians involved, the action was less attributable to colonial pressure than to internal British politics, as Lord North used the repeal to establish his new cabinet. Significantly, the tax on tea, the least lucrative of the items, was kept as a symbolic proof of Parliament’s power to levy taxes on the colonies.
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