CREDIT, DEBIT, AND ATM CARDS
Where they are accepted, credit cards often offer superior exchange rates up to 5% better than the retail rate used by banks and other currency exchange estab lishments. Credit cards may also offer services such as insurance or emergency help, and are sometimes required to reserve hotel rooms or rental cars. MasterCard (a.k.a. EuroCard or Access in Europe) and Visa (a.k.a. Carte Bleue or Barclaycard) are widely-accepted; American Express cards work at some ATMs and at AmEx offices and major airports.
Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) cards are commonplace in Western Europe. Depending on the system that your home bank uses, you can most likely access your personal bank account from abroad. ATMs get the same wholesale exchange rate as credit cards, but there is often a limit on the amount of money you can with draw per day (around US$500), and unfortunately computer networks sometimes fail. There is typically also a surcharge of US$l-5 per withdrawal.
Debit cards are as convenient as credit cards but have a more immediate impact on your funds. A debit card can be used wherever its associated credit card com pany (usually MasterCard or Visa) is accepted, yet the money is withdrawn directly from the holder’s checking account. Debit cards often also function as ATM cards and can be used to withdraw cash from associated banks and ATMs throughout Europe. Ask your local bank about obtaining one.
The two mjyor international money networks are Cirrus (to locate ATMs US s800-424-7787 orwww.mastercard.com) and Visa/PLUS (to locate ATMs US® 800- 843-7587 or www.visa.com). Most ATMs charge a transaction fee that is paid to the bank that owns the ATM.
Much of the tension between the colonists and the director sprang from the lack of political authority in New Netherland towns. Best europe countries to visit Dutch charters did not allow popular political participation, in stark contrast to the English communities of New England. As the population of the English colonies grew, some of these colonists settled on the north shore of Long Island, and they insisted on town meetings and voting rights similar to those in New England. Stuyvesant held few elections in New Netherland. Incumbent local officials nominated their successors to the director, who made the final selection. In 1649, several New Amsterdam residents, calling themselves the Nine Men, made formal complaint about Stuyvesant’s opposition to local control. The company ordered him to create a New Amsterdam Court of Justice. He did so in 1653, but disallowed popular elections, instead appointing men to this body. Stuyvesant also strengthened the position of social elites in the colony, when he created greater and lesser burgher rights. The former applied to those who held high civil, military, or ecclesiastical offices and to settlers who paid 50 guilders (approximately 20 dollars). Lesser burgher rights went to those born in the city, those who had lived there for eighteen years, and merchants who paid a fee of 20 guilders to the company. Only those possessing greater burgher rights were eligible for public office.
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