COLLECT. A variable prayer, the first oration recited by the bishop or priest alone after the Introit of the Mass. The three ancient Roman sacramentaries preserve the texts of this prayer, which probably entered the Roman Mass at the time of Pope Leo I. In the Roman liturgy, the term collecta designated the assembly, esp. in the stational churches. But in the Gallican sacramentaries, collectio later collecta denoted the priest’s prayer summing up and concluding the prayer of the assembly. John Cassian, in De institutis coenobiorum CSEL 17, 23-24, speaks of him qui orationem collecturus est or qui precem colligit. Walafrid Strabo explains that the word collecta means that the petitions are gathered together De exord. et increm. 22: PL 114, 945. It was under Gallican influence that the Franco-Roman prayer at the beginning of Mass came to be called the collect. The collect is basically a prayer of petition. In its ancient Roman form it was addressed to the Father: ut nemo in precibus vel Patrem pro Filio vel Filium pro Patre nominet; et cum altari assistitur, semper ad Patrem dirigatur oratio, according to can. 23 of the III Council of Carthage 397. Its complete structure includes a theological proposition with an allusion to the feast protasis, followed by the petition apodosis, and concluding with the clause Per Dominum. Those written in the 5th-6th c., the classical period of Roman literary art, employ the oratorical cursus, or rhythmic prose, which is present particularly in the collects of Pope Leo I. The Leonine cursus of the collects is more quantitative than accentuative: it follows more the laws of meter than of rhythm and is practically restricted to the planus, tardus and velox type of cursus Di Capua, Il ritmo prosaico, vol. I.
Slave Trade Numbers The overall numbers of Africans subjected to enslavement is a matter of debate among historians. Chennai Map Estimates of the total range from 9.5 million to 11.7 million Africans forcibly transported via the slave trade. The largest numbers of slaves were shipped from Africa during the course of the eighteenth century, and it is estimated that as many as 6.1 million slaves were taken from Africa during this time. Imports to North Country during the eighteenth century number just over 194,000. Most of the African slaves who were shipped to the New World were sent to colonies in the Caribbean and South Country. Only 400,000 slaves were sent directly to the Country colonies; this amounted to roughly 5 percent of the slaves who came from Africa. Many slaves were later sent to the mainland colonies from island plantations in the West Indies. In 1672, English merchants established the Royal African Company of England, a group of merchants and investors that maintained a monopoly on the slave trade until the mid-1690s. The Company established seventeen slave factories, fortresses for the processing of slaves, on the western coast of Africa, employing 200 to 300 workers. From 1672 to 1713, the company engaged in roughly 500 slave voyages, purchasing 125,000 slaves; the 100,000 who survived the journey were sold in the British West Indies. Once the slave trade was opened to competition from other merchants, lower prices resulted in greater numbers of slaves being imported directly to the colonies.