With the invention of the steam engine, spinning mill, and Spinning Jenny (cotton spinning machine) in the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution was off to a running start. From 1800 to 1850 it spread rapidly throughout Europe, bringing with it urbanization and greater life expectancy. Factories, especially for textiles and iron, were the Industrial Age’s most visible symbol, but the period also saw heightened international trade and the birth of socialist ideology (St. Simon, Marx, and Engels). Heightened urbanization provided mobility for the peasant class, although conditions in slums remained deplorable.

Industrial changes were harbingers of other social revolutions, as liberal revolts broke out in Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Russia, and Spain from 1815 to 1848. The 19th century also brought new independence for several countries, as Belgium wrested autonomy from The Netherlands in 1830 and the Turks recognized Greek independence in 1832. An 18-year-old Queen Victoria ascended the British throne in 1837, giving rise to the era of her name.

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1760-1848 Photo Gallery

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