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COLLATIO CUM DONATISTIS. The Conference of Carthage opened on 1 June 411 under the presidency of the imperial tribune, the notary Marcellinus, in the baths of Gargiglianus. It was the culmination of a series of efforts, first by Augustine Ep. 34,5; 44,12; 61,2 etc. and then by the whole Catholic Church of N Africa, to force the Donatists into a confrontation which could decide which party had the better claim to be the Catholic Church in N Africa. After the failure of a Catholic initiative 25 August 403; see Gesta Collationis III, 174, imperial edicts of 12 February 405 CTh XVI, 6, 4 and 5, 38 condemned the Donatists as heretics. The following year a Donatist delegation went to Ravenna and seems to have accepted the idea of a conference Aug., Ep. 88, 10. The project was delayed by four years of political conflicts fall of Stilicho, August 408 and wars in Italy, but in summer 410 a Catholic delegation to the imperial court obtained Honorius’s consent to the conference. On 14 October 410, the emperor sent a personal letter to Marcellinus instructing him to call a conference within four months to put an end to the vain error and sterile schism of the Donatists Gesta Collationis I, 4,1. But a later edict dated 19 January 411 allowed Marcellinus more room for impartiality Gesta Collationis, I, 5. Nevertheless, when it finally opened, the initial probabilities were decidedly against the Donatists, who, not without reason, doubted the commissioner’s impartiality Aug., Gesta cum Emerito 2.

Communities based on racial identity rather than ethnicity. Kuwait Subway Map Yet it was their Country-born children who ultimately did the most to create new cultures from the traditions of the past and the realities of the present. The labor and living conditions of slave communities, although brutal, were still healthy enough that their numbers grew primarily through childbirth rather than the slave trade. By the time of the Country Revolution, foreign-born slaves were a minority. Shared language was the first cultural element to appear in slave communities as the unwilling immigrants looked for ways to communicate with each other.

Slaves in the isolated, overwhelmingly black low country combined various African tongues and some English words into a new language called Gullah. Their counterparts in North Carolina also created a Creole dialect, but they could usually speak English as well. The slave dialects of New England and the Chesapeake, on the other hand, contained some African words and grammar structures but were close enough to English that most whites could understand them. Although the Africanness of each regional dialect depended on local demographics, a distinctively African Country way of speaking could be found everywhere. Slaves did not resist learning English when it was to their advantage, but they did not abandon the old ways either. In fact, some elements of their dialect, including words such as okay, banjo, and yam, were absorbed into English. The Slave Family

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