PIN NUMBERS AND ATMS To use a cash or credit card to withdraw money from a cash machine (ATM) in Western Europe, you must have a four digit Personal Identification Number (PIN). If your PIN is longer than four dig its, ask your bank whether you can just use the first four, or whether you’ll need a new one. Credit cards don’t usually come with PINs, so if you intend to hit up ATMs in Europe with a credit card to get cash advances, call your credit card company before leaving to request one. People with alphabetic, rather than numerical, PINs may also be thrown off by the lack of letters on Euro pean cash machines. The following handy chart gives the corresponding num bers to use: 1=QZ; 2=ABC; 3=DEF; 4=GHI; 5=JKL; 6=MN0; 7=PRS; 8=TUV; and 9=WXY. Note that if you mistakenly punch the wrong code into the machine three times, it will swallow your card for good.
the checks are lost or stolen, and many provide services such as toll-free refund hotlines, emergency message services, and stolen credit card assistance. They are readily accepted across Europe. Ask about toll-free refund hotlines and the loca tion of refund centers when purchasing checks, and always carry emergency cash.
American Express: Checks available with commission at select banks, at AmEx offices, and online (www.americanexpress.com; US residents only). AmEx cardholders can also purchase checks by phone (®888-269-6669). Cheques for Two can be signed by either of 2 people traveling together. For purchase locations or more info contact AmEx’s service centers: in the US and Canada ® 800-221-7282; in the UK®08 0587 6023; in Australia ®0800 688 022; in New Zealand ®0508 555 358; elsewhere US collect ®+l 801-964-6665.
Visa: Checks available (generally with commission) at banks worldwide. For the location of the nearest office, call Visa’s service centers: in the US ®800-227-6811; in the UK®08 0051 5884; elsewhere UK collect ®+44 020 7937 8091.
In Europe, inducing sneezing by inhaling various powders was a popular curative. Netherlands Map Tobacco quickly replaced powdered pepper, myrrh, sneezewort, white hellebore, and spurge, for it had a soothing effect, relieving the sufferer’s worries about his or her illness. Oviedo noted, however, that tobacco made people oblivious to their pain but did not cure them. He also noted that Africans, who were taken to the Indies as slaves, soon took to growing tobacco around their homes to smoke when they finished work, saying that it relieved their tiredness. The tobacco plant is indigenous to the Countrys; native peoples have been smoking and chewing its leaves for millennia. The Spanish carried it back to Europe, and smoking both for pleasure and medicinal purposes became widespread there in the sixteenth century.
(Private Collection/Bridgeman Art Library) Imperial Spain held a monopoly on tobacco sales until 1556, when a clergyman named Andr© Thevet took seeds from Brazil to France. Although it appears that tobacco was growing in Portugal as early as 1512, it is not listed among Lisbon’s market items until 1558. Tobacco did not become popular in France until the French ambassador in Lisbon, Jean Nicot, wrote to Queen Catherine de Medici in 1559 lauding tobacco’s curative properties. He sent some to the French court, recommending it for the queen’s migraine headaches. Today, the genus of the herb still bears his name, as does tobacco’s addictive alkali substance.
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