Some problems of an ecclesiastical nature are included in various places: I, 27 de episcopali definitione; IV, 7 de manumissionibus in ecclesia; V, 3 de bonis clericorum et monachorum; IX, 45 de his, qui ad ecclesias confugiunt; a sign of willingness to consider, on the level of prescriptive law, the new problems represented by the triumph of the church as a social reality and an established institution. In particular the whole of the last book, XVI, is dedicated to the relations between the empire and the Catholic Church. The position of this book in the compilation and its special nature are disputed by scholars: is it a mere appendix, negligible for evaluating the criteria inspiring the collection, or does it contain its own internal logic justifying its structure, a choice of themes corresponding to the political and legal reality of the time?
The most recent literature tends to see it as evidence of the empire’s interest in religious unity, decisive in the support given by the state to the church insofar as it meant a guarantee of religious and civil peace within society. Compared with the code of Justinian, which opens with ecclesiastical legislation 1,1-13, enhancing the importance of the Catholic faith by recognizing the legal autonomy of all legislation pertaining to it, the compilers of the Codex Theodosianus while fully aware of the historical reality of the institutional church set this new reality within a prescriptive model which adhered to the constitutional structure of the state: recognition of the church as an institution was thus effected in connection with the requirements of civil society, and in collaboration even on the legislative level with its structures.
Slaves faced the strictest penalties under the law, because they were considered property and thus had virtually no legal rights. Shanghai Metro Map The laws against runaway slaves were the strictest. Many colonies made provisions under the law to return fugitive slaves to their owners, often with a monetary reward to the person assisting in the return. Slaves found without a written pass were suspected of being fugitives and returned promptly to their owners. Punishment for running away was usually harsh. Unlike indentured servants, slaves could not sue in court and were not protected under the law. Life as a domestic servant was hard. The colonial household was a place of production, meaning that all subsistence products used in the home were made in the home. This was different from the situation in the industrialized household, where many necessary items were produced in factories and bought in stores. Servants’ main responsibilities were cooking and cleaning, both arduous tasks. With no indoor plumbing, servants had to carry in buckets of water to cook and clean. Ashes from a wood-burning stove kept the servant constantly busy trying to keep the home clean. Servants were also responsible for tasks such as sewing, weaving, spinning, knitting, tailoring, preserving food, and gardening. They made such household items as soap, candles, medicines, and cheese. In addition, domestic servants were not confined to household tasks. They also worked in the fields to produce subsistence crops for the household.
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