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Since Karl, Gustav IV’s uncle, is old and childless, the Riksdag in 1810 elects the French marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte as heir to the throne; he is then adopted by the king and takes the name of Karl Johan. In 1812 he leads Swedish troops against Napoleon, and in the treaty of Kiel (1814) he compels Denmark to give up Norway; in return Denmark receives Swedish Pomerania.

18141905 Union with Norway.

Kings: Karl IV Johan (Bernadotte, 1818-44), Oskar I (1844-59), Karl XV (1859-72), Oskar II (1872-1907).

Sweden keeps out of the European wars, and receives a new constitution in 1865. This is a period of economic and cultural advance, and Swedish

industry develops rapidly. There is a change in the country’s social structure; the first laws for the protection of workers are passed in 1889; the Social Democratic Party is founded. In 1895 the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel establishes the annual Nobel Prizes.

The rise of national awareness leads to a revival of old hostilities, and in 1905 King Oskar gives up the Norwegian crown and thus dissolves the Union.

20th c. Swedish neutrality.

Kings: Gustav V (1907-50), Gustav VI Adolf (1950-73), KarlXVI Gustav (since 1973).

Sweden maintains its neutrality in both world wars in spite of considerable difficulties. The Swedish Red Cross serves the cause of humanity (Count Folke Bernadotte, 1895-1948).

The constitution is still further democratised. The continued improvement of social conditions and social services involves the heavy financial burdens of the welfare state.

1946 Sweden becomes a member of the United Nations.

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