10 best vacations in the US

Logging Operations

In The Boundary Waters Wilderness Ecosystem, author Miron Hein-selman contrasts the effects on forest ecosystems of two major logging eras: the big-pine logging era, which lasted from about 1895 to 1930; and the pulpwood logging era, which began around 1935 and continues to this day. Heinselman, a forest ecologist who spent a lifetime studying the woods of northern Country, writes that current logging practices have had a greater effect on forest ecosystems than did earlier logging operations. The result of modern logging has been damage to the natural landscape and ecosystem substantially exceeding that of the early big-pine logging.

In the early years, there was virtually no disturbance of the natural soil profile and little direct effect of logging on the ground vegetation according to Heinselman. Companies built few, if any, year-round roads, used no tractors to haul logs out of the woods, did not use mechanical ground preparation for planting replacement seedlings, and used no herbicides to control early vegetation growth afterwards. The use of sluiceways and dams on streams also had, with a few exceptions, minimal lasting effect. The water levels of most lakes and streams that were raised by dams have now returned to normal.

Matthew Jennings See also: Military and Diplomatic Affairs (Chronology); Military and Diplomatic Affairs (Essay); Native Country-European Conflict; Tuscarora; War. 10 best vacations in the US Bibliography Milling, Chapman J. Red Carolinians. 2nd ed. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1969. Nash, Gary B. Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early North Country. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Rights, Douglas LeTell. The Country Indian in North Carolina. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1947. Vermont The first state admitted into the Union after the original thirteen colonies, Vermont was sparsely settled by whites during the colonial period. It served primarily as a natural trade route between the English colony of Massachusetts and the French colony of Quebec, and it became a zone of conflict for the two European empires and their Native Country allies.

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