Athens Subway Map

Alexandre-Theodore Brongniart in Athens

Stand at the grave of Alexandre-Theodore Brongniart and pivot in a 360-degree circle. Much of what you see can be credited to him. Brongniart was the architect and designer of Pere-Lachaise. Brongniart was already a prominent member of Parisian society and a well-established architect (he designed a number of hotels and private residences) and was serving as the Architect and general-controller of the Ecole Militaire when Napoleon Bonaparte asked him to create the layout for Pere-Lachaise. Later, Brongniart designed the Greffulhe Mausoleum, the first major building in Pere-Lachaise. In 1807, when Brongniart was 68, Napoleon asked him to supervise the completion of the Paris stock exchange, Palais de la Bourse, (literally the Stock Exchange Palace). On the day of Brongniart’s funeral, June 8, 1813, his coffin was paraded past Palais de la Bourse, which was still under construction and would not be completed for another dozen years. Students, colleagues and friends assembled and even construction workers came down from their scaffolds to pay tribute. As an additional honor, the Palais de la Bourse was given the formal name, Palais Brongniart. A low-relief carving of the building is centermost on the medallion on his gravestone.

Science Map The Spanish also turned to a more aggressive approach to the resources of their empire in the late eighteenth century, sending the Royal Botanical Expedition to Mexico in 1787. Athens Subway Map The leading scientific center of Spain’s Country Empire was Mexico City, which received a Royal Botanical Garden in 1788 and a Royal Mining College in 1792. In the eighteenth century, colonial residents began to be independent voices in Western science. The botanists John Clayton of Virginia and Dr. Alexander Garden of Charles Town (after whom the gardenia is named) were respected correspondents and colleagues of European botanists, not persons principally valued for their collecting ability, like John Bartram. Colonial scientists also made their presence felt in new fields. One reason for Benjamin Franklin’s fame was that he was the first colonial scientist, born and resident in a colony, to make an important original contribution to experimental physics. This led to his acceptance as a peer by Europe’s leading scientists. Franklin was fortunate to be working in a relatively young field, where there was not a great deal of previous literature or mathematized theory to master.

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