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The bog supports black spruce and tamarack growing on a soggy bed of sphagnum moss which is the dominate groundlayer species. This is the typical habitat for the black spruce. What appear to be rather short, young trees, are actually quite old. Habitat conditions do not support the rate of growth for the bog-dwelling black spruce that is exhibited by most of the other trees in the region. Spruces with a diameter of only 2″ have been found to be 127 years old.
If you look closely, you may see dense clusters of branches in the spruces. Sometimes referred to as witches brooms, they are caused by dwarf mistletoe, a parasite of the black spruce. Mistletoe, while they have chlorophyll and can make their own food, have no roots and are partially parasitic on trees. While humans are poisoned by a sticky substance that covers the fruit, birds, such as Cedar Waxwings, love the small berries.
Rush served as Pennsylvania’s delegate to the second Continental Congress (1774) and signed the Declaration of Independence (1776). That same year, he married Julia Stockton, the daughter of family friends and fourteen years his junior. In 1777, he was named surgeon general of the Middle Department of the Continental army and served diligently until he resigned, after criticizing General Washington’s failure to improve medical conditions in the field. Returning to private practice and college teaching, Rush became deeply disillusioned by the way the republican experiment was unraveling in postwar Philadelphia. Best countries to visit in january A lower-class group of self-proclaimed egalitarians had seized control of state government, instituting a unicameral legislature that Rush perceived as a seat of arbitrary power more dangerous than monarchy. To heal the wounds of such factionalism and to revive his dream of a republican utopia, Rush set about creating a network of voluntary associations that encompassed prison welfare, health care, temperance, exercise, Sunday schools, missionary societies, and African church organizations.
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