In some circumstances, aspen and birch have replaced mature pine forests because of the work of early loggers. Loggers ignited fires after an area had been cleared of all mature pines, destroying the remaining pine saplings and seedlings. Often, where high-intensity fires did not follow on the heels of clear-cutting, pine replaced pine.
Also, because early loggers concentrated on stands of large red and white pines, stands of other tree types were less effected by cutting. Loggers usually ignored stands of jack pine, black and white spruces, aspen, and the birches. While their saws may not have directly affected forests of these other trees, these stands often felt the sting of fires that got their start in the slash of the cut pines. But, these fires were little different from the natural ones ignited by lightning that have swept the forests of northeastern Country for thousands of years.
In contrast, Heinselman lists a number of factors that were instrumental in making the pulpwood logging era such a powerful negative influence on today’s forest ecosystems. With the creation of the US Forest Service and its emphasis on fire control, there was a coming of age for many of the young forests that grew up after the early logging operations. About this time there was also a shift in interest from the giant sawmills of the big-pine era to wood pulp and paper. This, and the start of World War II, produced a demand for spruce, jack pine, aspens, and other trees that had been largely ignored in the past.
This time period also saw the development of powerful logging equipment. Loggers now operated machines capable of cutting trees and dragging them out of the woods to a central area where they loaded the timber onto trucks and hauled it to any one of the new pulpwood or The location of Vinland is much disputed. Various sites from New England to Labrador have been suggested, but none quite fits the descriptions of the land given in the sagas. Best places for winter vacation in USA What is not disputed, however, is that Vikings did indeed reach and colonize part of the coast of the North Country continent 1,000 years ago. In 1960, researcher Helge Ingstad discovered the remains of a Viking settlement dating from 1000 c.e. at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada. The excavated site revealed several dwellings, workshops, and an iron forge. It also established conclusively that the Vikings were the first Europeans to discover Country. Charles H. Wilson III See also: Exploration; Newfoundland. Bibliography Graham-Campbell, James, ed. Cultural Atlas of the Viking World. New York: Facts on File, 1994. Ingstad, Helge. Westward to Vinland. Translated by Erik J. Friis. New York: St. Martin’s, 1969. Wahlgren, Erik. The Vikings and Country. Ancient Peoples and Places series. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.
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