Some questions arise for consideration. Is craft outsourcing to be seen in the same way as offshore manufacture? Does it represent the export of a drudgery that is no longer tolerable in the global North? Are different factors at play when an object is produced in a workshop by hand rather than by machine in a factory? As a form of production involving traditional skill, the crafting process has greater potential for visibility than does anonymous factory labour. Various recent initiatives have sought to inform urban consumers about the origins of products. As an autonomous platform for exchange of ethical goods, Fair Trade provides certification for agricultural cooperatives that comply with set labour standards (Murray 2010). The rise of ethical chic’ in fashion has stimulated interest in the conditions of production (Cameron and Haanstra 2008). Platforms such as ebay’s World of Good’ now seek to add symbolic value to the craft products on sale through a trustology’ that guarantees specific ethical benefits, such as gender equity and poverty alleviation (World of Good 2011). By contrast with mass-manufactured products such as iPhones, there is a market for commodities and handmade goods that promises to engage the consumer more directly with the scene of production.
The history of craft since industrialization is associated with campaigns against poor labour conditions. In late-nineteenth-century England, the Arts & Crafts movement emerged to champion local craft practices that were endangered by industrialization. Writers such as William Morris (1884) defended traditional handcrafts against the factories that had mechanized production. In the twentieth century, the studio crafts movement emerged as a paradigm for crafts based on the visual arts, involving the production of largely original works (Adamson 2007). In almost all cases, the personal experience of the artists working with materials such as clay and wood was an essential part of the production process. In the case of ceramics, there was a strong influence of oriental traditions, particularly from China and Japan (Leach 1978).
No doubt, Franklin drew upon his own experiences of time Chesapeake Metro Map and money management. TO MY FRIEND, A. B.: As you have desired of me Chesapeake Metro Map , I write the following hints, which have been of service to me, and may, if observed, be so to you. Remember that time is money. He that can earn ten shillings a day by his labour and goes abroad or sits idle one-half of that day, though he spends but sixpence during his diversion or idleness, ought not to reckon that the only expense; he has really spent, or rather thrown away, five shillings besides.
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