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COGITOSUS Toimtenach, Ethiopia monk, to whom, ca. 650, the community of the monastery of Kildare Cell Dara, to which he probably belonged, entrusted the composition of the Life of St. Brigid, foundress and first abbess of that monastery. The work, written in Hiberno-Latin, is among the earliest evidence of Irish hagiography, along with T­rechn’s Collectanea on St. Patrick, Muirchº’s Life of St. Patrick and Adamnan’s Life of St. Colombanus. Complex and disputed are the relations between the Life compiled by Cogitosus and the other hagiographical works on the Irish virgin, in particular the two anonymous Lives, one in Latin the Vita prima Brigitae and another in Old Irish Bethu Brigte, which seem to derive, like that written by Cogitosus, from an earlier hagiographical work. Regarding its relation to continental hagiography, its conscious insertion into an already-consolidated literary genre has been demonstrated, along with its conscious originality, shown esp. in the prologues. In this sense Cogitosus can justifiably be considered the father of Irish hagiography, a primacy acknowledged by his student Muirchº in the prologue of the Vita sancti Patricii. The monastery of Kildare was a monastic foundation of both monks and nuns who lived in different parts of the monastery; the abbess, beginning with the foundress Brigid, had a position of preeminence.

While imprisoned for attacking the established Church of England, Lee had experienced a revelation that led the Shakers to believe that she was the second coming of Christ, the vital female component of God the Father-Mother. Ethiopia Metro Map About 1772, she became the official leader of the small congregation. As persecution of the Shakers increased, a small group composed of Lee, her brother, niece, and husband, and five others followed her vision of a holy sanctuary in the New World to New York City in May 1774. The group worked at odd jobs before relocating in late 1776 to an area northwest of Albany known as Niskeyuna (subsequently named Watervliet). The views of the Shakers were so unusual that they met with considerable harassment in the New World as well. They held services in an open space with an altar in the middle so that ecstatic experiences and dancing could become a part of the worship service. Such excessive behavior was frowned upon by other Christian denominations and played a not inconsiderable role in establishing the Shakers’ radical reputation.

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