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Outside the walls were the cemeterial Churches of St. Gereon, St. Ursula and St. Severinus, built in the fields of late-Roman necropolises of the 1st c. AD. The brickwork of St. Gereon is from the Late Antique period; the church is an oval building of ca. 23 x 18 m with four semicircular niches on each side, radius ca. 2.30 m, and eastern apse. The church itself was not attested before a document of 839; some in- scriptions in the cemetery indicate a liturgical use of the building in the early Christian period. Inscriptions on three sarcophagi in the confessio confirm the veneration of the Theban martyrs. The threeaisled basilica of St. Ursula, dimensions 28 x 17 m, dates possibly to the 4th c. after the Frankish invasions of 355356?, as some tombs in the cemetery suggest, which contain objects decorated with early Christian iconographical themes. Christian use of the basilica, however, is not certainly attested before the construction of an ambo in the 6th c., and the cult of the martyrs not before the 10th c. The Church of St. Severinus seems not to have had any particular relation with the cult of the martyrs. By the presence of Christian epitaphs in the surrounding cemetery, it can be supposed that the primitive building of 11.60 x 7.60 m was used as a private cemetery chapel by a Christian family.

Around 470 the chapel was turned into a church, three-aisled with narthex, which, until the 6th c., had no new area for the deposition of the deceased. Thus in this case too, we cannot exclude the possibility that it was a parochial church, established to serve a populous quarter on the periphery. IV. Inscriptions and minor arts. There are many Christian funerary inscriptions, variously distributed: almost 20 have been found in Cologne cemeteries, all from the 4th to the 7th c. Among the remains of the floor of St. Gereon, fragments of mosaics have been found, which were perhaps part of the decoration of the barrel, which Venantius Fortunatus Carmen 3,14: MGH.AA 41,68 and Gregory of Tours Liber in gloria martyrum 61: MGH. SRM 12,530 had already noted. The fragment of a statue of a shepherd, from the cemetery of St. Severinus, is not of certain Christian origin Fremersdorf 15, pl. 8,2.

While the early economy of South Carolina was diverse and other crops, especially indigo, grew well there, around the turn of the eighteenth century, rice emerged as the colony’s most profitable staple. Greensboro Map Tourist Attractions Omaha Map Rice agriculture affected colonial society in two crucial ways. First, it brought huge profits to a small group of planters. On the eve of the War for Independence, nine of the North Country colonies’ ten wealthiest men were South Carolina rice planters. The county surrounding Charles Town was almost four times wealthier than any other mainland county.

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The second primary effect of rice agriculture was to increase South Carolina’s reliance on slave labor. White planters utilized African expertise and labor to produce rice, preferring slaves who had previous experience in rice cultivation. Slaves from the region between the Senegal and Gambia Rivers in West Africa were particularly prized, although traders and planters often had to settle for slaves from other regions. In the first half of the eighteenth century, the colony’s black population skyrocketed. South Carolina was more African than English as early as 1708, and this trend continued throughout the colony’s history. One early settler, Samuel Dyssli, famously noted that South Carolina was more like a negro country than one settled by white people.

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