A road map of England shows London to be the centerpiece of the country. Eight of the major motorways, the M system, converge on London from around the country. The 1 (M) starts with London and heads north into Scotland. The M 5 starts south at Plymouth and joins the M 6, then heads north to Scotland. The M 4 stretches east and west, from Cardiff, Wales, on the west to London on the east.
Time was when Britain ruled the British Empire, which covered a large part of the world’s land mass. “The sun never set on the British Empire,” and on the more than 372 million people who were in it. Granted most of the people were in poverty-ridden India and Africa. Nevertheless the grandeur of The Empire reached a zenith. Uniforms, parades and plenty of pomposity were the order of the day. Young Englishmen administered vast stretches of land and people while Scots, Welch and Irish troops made sure English orders were carried out. The Empire is now shadow, but its panoply and pageantry remain. No one, not even Hollywood, rivals the British in pageantry. A sense of history pervades the place. The Guard regiments are on duty in downtown London providing an unmatched tourist attraction. The changing of the Guard, the Trooping of the Colors, and the Opening of Parliament are events that warm the cockles of the hearts of the British Tourist Authority. Cinderella’s Castle in Disneyland, Versailles palace, and Ludwig’s Bavarian Castle pale beside a real live royal family living in the splendor of Buckingham and Windsor Castles.
Britain itself is remarkably compact—less than six hundred miles from Dernnet Head, northern tip of mainland Scotland, south to England’s southernmost point, Land’s End.
Manchester history, Since everyone had to use an axe and a knife in daily life, these tools were common. Manchester Metro Map In the British and French colonies of North Country, they merged into a new tool, the tomahawk, rather similar to what we call a hatchet today. The primary difference was in the design, which allowed the tomahawk to be thrown as a missile, as well as to be used as a hand axe. The very first of the projectile weapons to appear in the New World were the crossbow and matchlock. The earliest records indicate that some distances were measured in terms of “crossbow shots,” that is, the expected distance a bolt or arrow could be hurled from the crossbow. The early explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca noted that he used the metal pieces from his crossbows to manufacture nails when he and his men attempted to build boats in an effort to return from the North Country mainland to Spanish outposts in Cuba in 1528. Hernando de Soto had a group of crossbowmen with him when he crossed the Mississippi, and Francisco Vázquez de Coronado and Estévan Juan Carrillo noted that when they explored the Southwest, they carried a number of crossbows as well.