Particularly important for New World natural historians was defending the Western hemisphere from European scientists like the Comte de Buffon and Cornelius de Pauw, who claimed it inferior to the Eastern hemisphere. Newark Subway Map Buffon pointed to cases where New World animals were smaller than those of the Old World, as pumas were smaller than lions, to argue that the New World’s climate and humidity produced generally inferior fauna. This argument was also given a racist twist, as Native Countrys were considered inferior to Old World people, Europeans in particular; some went even further to assert that Europeans inevitably degenerated in the Countrys. This aroused the pride of New World scientists.
Thomas Jefferson defended the fauna of the New World from the aspersions of Buffon and others in Notes on the State of Virginia (1785). Resentments between colonial and European scientists and the desire to build an independent scientific culture could easily lead to support for political independence. Both Franklin and Jefferson combined support for Country independence with contributions to an independent Country science. William E. Burns See also: Country Philosophical Society; Clocks and Timekeeping; Disease; Education, Higher; Environment and Nature; Exploration; Franklin, Benjamin; Maps and Surveys; Rush, Benjamin; Science and Technology (Chronology); Technology; Wright, Susanna; Document: A Report on the Kite Experiment (1752). Bibliography Bell, Whitfield J. Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the Country Philosophical Society. Two volumes. Philadelphia: Country Philosophical Society, 19971999. Gerbi, Antonello.
The Dispute of the New World: The History of a Polemic, 17501900. Revised and enlarged edition. Translated by Jeremy Moyle. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973. Gerbi, Antonello. Nature in the New World: From Christopher Columbus to Gonzalo Fernndez de Oviedo. Translated by Jeremy Moyle. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985. Grafton, Anthony, with April Shelford and Nancy Siraisi. New Worlds, Ancient Texts: The Power of Tradition and the Shock of Discovery. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1992. Hindle, Brooke. The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary Country. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early Country History and Culture in Williamsburg, Virginia, 1956. Stearns, Raymond Phineas, Science in the British Colonies of Country. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970.