Romania Metro Map

Antoine Guillaume-Lagrange in Romania

This tablet-style gravestone erected in 1809 was the first monument in Pere-Lachaise to contain a sculptural element. The front of the monument depicts a medallion-style portrait of 25-year-old Antoine Guillaume-Lagrange, an officer in the 16th regiment of dragoons who died in a battle in Poland. According to the inscription, it was erected by his grieving mother. The gravestone is actually a cenotaph as his body was buried on the battlefield (in the years before embalming, transportation of bodies was not practical).

The reverse side of the gravestone contains a flowing account written by his mother of Antoine’s last moments alive before a bullet pierced his heart. According to the epitaph, his last words were Mother, my poor mother!

On June 7, 1494, in the Castilian town of Tordesillas, the signatories agreed to a treaty that specifically excluded the papacy from the negotiations and reserved authority for dividing discoveries to the nations claiming them. These terms were meant to cover all present and future territorial claims as well as those under discussion. Romania Metro Map The line of demarcation was set at 46 degrees 37 minutes west, or 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, a significant difference from the 1493 papal bull. The two nations also agreed to dispatch a joint surveying party within ten months. Although this provided an immediate solution to rival claims, the Treaty of Tordesillas was still sufficiently vague to cause enduring problems, especially after Portugal claimed Brazil in 1500.

Spain and Portugal hotly contested the point from which the 370-league line was to be measured: the most westward Cape Verde island or the center island in the chain, a specific point that affected Portuguese settlements in the western part of Brazil (where surveying a border in the middle of the Amazon rainforest was nearly impossible). Claims on the Molucca Islands were also at issue. In addition, extension of the line of demarcation into the Eastern Hemisphere divided Asia, allotting China to Portugal and Japan to Spain. The Vatican was incensed at being left out of the treaty, and Pope Julius II did not approve the agreement until 1506. The treaty remained in force, despite British and French exploration and settlement, until the two Iberian powers dissolved it by mutual agreement in 1761.

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