It transpired he meant that if I wanted a shower, Shanghai Map Tourist Attractions there would be some hot water at 8 p.m. Much better than a circus Shanghai Map Tourist Attractions act. In the morning I decided to reconnoitre a bit of the Yellow River. With the memory of falling out of the canoe still fresh in my mind I didn’t want to be caught unawares by rapids on something the size of the Yellow River. So I arranged to hire a jeep and was accompanied by a very helpful representative of CITS (China International Travel Service) called Chen.
There were, of course, buyers as well as vendors, among them western academics with a nostalgia for a system under which they never lived but which at least posed a theoretical alternative to the system of neo-liberal economics.
The example of Wall culture may seem tangential, but I cite it because it shows that global consumerism, and globalized culture, trade on de-contextualization. It is within this scenario that culture became a means to urban renewal, setting aside the aesthetic autonomy which was claimed for modern art in favour of functions – from making place-identity to reducing unemployment. The need for urban renewal followed globalization’s production of empty brownfield sites, and a general worsening in residual forms of deprivation in inner-city areas while redevelopment cut through older quarters, making enclaves of new (gated) space within remaining dereliction. The result is what planning academic Peter Marcuse has described as a layered city in which divisions of class and ethnicity intersect those of wealth, power and land-use: a layered city, in which one line of division overlaps another, sometimes creating congruent quarters, sometimes not’ (Marcuse 2002: 94). Amid such complexities, there was a tendency for redevelopment to emphasize property rather than social equity; and to insert new centres, either of commercial space or residential compounds, within an extant urban fabric which was then re-coded as a series of margins.
With complexity came a new phase of social ordering and surveillance, mediated by new technologies of communication and data collection. As sociologist Zygmunt Bauman writes, looking at the divergence of interests and opportunities between a rising global elite and various residual local or migrant publics:
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