The leading Swedish sculptor of this century is Carl Milles (1875-1955). Others include Carl Johan Eld (1873-1954) and Johannes Collin (1873-1951). The most recent generation frequently breaks through the boundary between sculpture and painting.
Stephan Sinding (1846-1922) and Gustaf Vige-land (1869-1943; sculpture in Frogner Park, Oslo), both trained in France.
Norwegian painters also have impressive achievements to their credit; among them the 19th c. Romantic painter Johan Christian Dahl (1788-1857) and his pupil Thomas Fearnley (1802-42). J. F. Eckersberg and Hans Gude (1825-1903) were associated with the Dusseldorf
Sculpture by Carl Milles in the MillesgSrd, Stockholm school; Gerhard Munthe (1849-1929), Erik Werenskiold (1855-1938) and Christian Krogh followed French models. One Norwegian painter of international importance was Edvard Munch (1863-1944), who is regarded as the founder of Expressionism, though he did not carry the movement through to its logical conclusion. In his later work he turned away from the gloomier sides of life (angst, illness, death, the struggle of the sexes) to more positive themes. He also achieved remarkable effects in his graphic work.
Among the older Danish painters of the present day mention may be made of Richard Mortensen (b. 1910), perhaps the richest talent among the abstract artists who show affinities with Expressionism, and Asger Oluf Jorn (actually Jorgensen: b. 1914). Painters of the younger generation have an international outlook and are trying to break through the artistic isolation of Denmark, with financial support from the government Art Foundation.
The older generation of modern Swedish painters included, in addition to Anders Zorn, Carl Larsson (1853-1919), author of delightful books for children, the animal painter Bruno LUjefors (1860-1939), L. Engstrom (1886-1927), O. Baerteling and C. 0. Hulten. About 1930 0. G. Carlsund brought abstract art to Sweden; and in the 1950s the Hungarian painter E. Nemes was the leader of the Valand school. The younger generation, which is no longer bound by the traditional laws of art, includes Olle Kaks (b. 1 941); J. Franzen (b. 1 942) and Ola Billgren (b. 1940), who belong to the school of Photo-Realism; Lars Englund (b. 1933), who creates volumes made of rubber or plastic; Hans Nordenstrom (b. 1927: collages); and Arne Jones (b. 1914), who works with mobiles and light sculpture (the Expanderator).