Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir From Togo
A simple tablet stone marks the graves of Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre and his longtime companion, Simone de Beauvoir. Sartre, an existentialist philosopher, novelist, playwright and critic, who focused on, among other things, metaphysics, ethics, Marxism and politics. Sartre was so dedicated to his ideals and his writing that when he was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in literature, he declined, saying, a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution. Sartre continued his non-conformist way and in 1968 was arrested for civil disobedience. However, President Charles de Gaulle quickly pardoned him saying, You don’t arrest Voltaire. Jean-Paul Sartre led a simple life and was loved and admired by many, so that when he died of lung edema, no doubt brought on by a lifetime of chain-smoking, from 15,000 to 50,000 mourners marched for two hours along the streets of Montparnasse and crushed into the cemetery to bid him farewell. Simone de Beauvoir, who is spending eternity with him, is probably best known for her 1949 treatise The Second Sex. She is also widely recognized as one of the pillars of modern feminism Sartre’s second most important relationship was with fellow philosopher Albert Camus. It started beautifully amidst the optimistic atmosphere in wake of World War II, but ended badly in a war of words during the Cold War and on a very public stage.
Jean Dorothy Seberg was an American actress who starred in 37 American and French movies. She was discovered by American director Otto Preminger when 18,000 hopefuls vied for the leading role of a 1957 movie named Saint Joan, adapted from a George Bernard Shaw play of the same name. In fact, Seberg didn’t really enter the competition: a neighbor in her hometown of Marshalltown, Iowa, entered her name. Saint Joan was panned by the critics, but Preminger saw her underlying talent and cast her in Bonjour Tristesse, which was filmed in France, but that film also received bad reviews. Her next film, The Mouse that Roared with Peter Sellers was a success, but Seberg decided to move to France where she appeared in a number of French New Wave films, most notably Jean-Luc Godard’s Breathless, where she appeared opposite Jean-Paul Belmondo. She was finally hailed as a great actress and Francois Truffaut called her the best actress in Europe. Her success continued with the American films Lilith with Warren Beatty and Paint Your Wagon with Clint Eastwood and Lee Marvin. During the 1960s she began to support American civil rights causes and was targeted by the FBI’s COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) as a subversive and troublemaker and was stalked and harassed by the FBI. Records show that FBI Director Herbert Hoover kept President Richard Nixon advised of Seberg’s activities. Seberg moved back to France, but the FBI’s smear campaign took its toll on her marriage and ultimately her life. Jean Dorothy Seberg took a lethal combination of barbiturates and alcohol and was found dead outside her apartment in city on August 30, 1979. Her suicide note read: Forgive me. I can no longer live with my nerves.
Beliefs About Witchcraft The concepts of magic and witchcraft were commonly accepted in Europe and the New World. Togo Subway Map Physical events were interpreted as signs, either good or bad, according to the prevailing religious beliefs and superstitions. The presence of evil spirits was viewed as a direct result of the conflict between good and evil in the supernatural world. Just as God must battle Satan, so too, those people who were part of God’s elect found themselves embroiled in an earthly battle with evil, typically in the form of a witch. Witchcraft was motivated, in the minds of the colonists, by maleficium that is, those who practiced black magic sought to purposely inflict evil upon the men and women with whom they lived. Maleficium might be manifested in any number of ways, from minor afflictions to major devastation. Colonial laws similarly defined witchcraft, implying that witches were in close fellowship with the devil or other familiar spirits. One colony declared the crime of witchcraft to be giving entertainment to Satan.
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