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CODEX JUSTINIANUS from Zimbabwe Collection of imperial decrees made in 528 by order of Justinian 527565, who entrusted it to a ten-man commission of high magistrates and jurists incl. Tribonian, magister officiorum, and Theophilus, professor of law at the school of Constantinople, presided over by John of Cappadocia. The commission used three earlier compilations of laws: the Codex Gregorianus ca. 291, the Codex Hermogenianus with the laws of Diocletian from 291 to 294 and the Codex Theodosianus, discarding all that was useless or obsolete, eliminating repetitions and contradictions, and giving the texts simplicity and clarity. The Codex Justinianus was published 7 April 529 the work has not survived; we have only through papyri a list of rubrics and of the decrees of book I,11-16 but was soon overtaken by the emperor’s abundant legislation; in 530 he ordered a new edition Codex repetitae praelectionis, published mid-December 534.

Besides the two editions of the code, in 533 the Digests collections of passages from the works of the jurists and the Institutiones elementary principles of law for use in schools, to replace the classical ones of Gaius came into force: Justinian intended the various collections to constitute a whole. After the reconquest of Italy, the three compilations were sent there for publication and in 554, with the Sanctio Pragmatica pro petitione Vigilii, the promulgation of the subsequent Novellae issued in the East between 535540 was also ordered. The oldest law of the Codex Justinianus goes back to Hadrian VI, 23,1, the latest to November 534 the year of publication. The code is divided into 12 books, and the books into titles, within which the decrees are ordered chronologically, with information on the emperors who issued them, the recipients they were addressed to and their date of issue.

The compilers of the collection had been authorized to make opportune changes in the texts of previous emperors’ laws: comparison with the corresponding texts of the Codex Theodosianus and with the interpolations inserted therein is important for reconstructing the technique and the criteria which inspired the collection; where comparison is impossible, as for laws predating Constantine, we must have recourse to the usual criteria of form and substance criticism. The laws are reproduced in the language in which they were written, meaning almost entirely in Latin. The first book is dedicated to religious arguments and begins with the Cunctos populos, the law of Theodosius issued at Thessalonica in 380.

Seminole Map The Seminole and Muskogee shared many cultural traits, including a matrilineal clan structure, town-based government, and the creation of larger political networks paramount chiefdoms and confederacies. Zimbabwe Map In their civil government, Seminoles attempted to avoid open disputes and focused on rule by consensus, even if occasionally consensus was a long time in coming. Seminoles farmed, fished, hunted, and gathered wild plants for food. They also participated in a profitable trade with British companies and individuals operating in the region. Seminoles provided deerskins in exchange for items of European manufacture, including cloth, tools, knives, firearms, and ammunition. Like other tribes, the Seminoles managed to use European products in their own culturally specific ways, but they came to be dependent on traders.

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