I. The first three centuries. In M. Vipsanius Agrippa forced the Germanic tribe of the Ubii to move from the right bank of the Rhine to the left and to found there the oppidum Ubiorum as their new center. The empress Agrippina, wife of Claudius 4154, was born there; in AD 50 she promoted the site to the rank of city with the name Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium Strab. 4,3,4; Tac., Ann. 12,27,1; thereafter it functioned both as capital of the province Germania Inferior and as its ecclesiastical center. The origins of the Christian community of Cologne remain quite obscure, although some signs suggest the presence of a Christian community in the city already at the time of the last persecutions. The 5th-6th-c. burial inscription of a girl of about 5 years, Rudufula, contains the expression SOCIATA MS, which perhaps may be understood as sociata martyribus associated to the tombs of the martyrs, in allusion to a tomb retro sanctos.
An inscription of St. Ursula, possibly from the late 4th c., tells how a man from the East, Clematius, was moved by a heavenly vision to rebuild a basilica that arose on the site on which some virgins were martyred. The crumbling church, which Clematius restored, was in a necropolis active until the 2nd half of the 1st c.; association of the martyrs with Ursula and her companions does not occur before the 9th c. Difficult to evaluate are the martyrdoms of soldiers attested, for the most part, on the site of legionary encampments. Cassius, Florentius and companions are mentioned in a diploma of 691 or 692 as protectors of Bonn. Unfortunately, archaeological research in the aforementioned area has thus far uncovered no graves. Gereon, too, only from the 7th c., has been related to a building, built by the end of the 4th c. at the center of a cemetery NW of the city. Gregory of Tours Liber in gloria martyrum 61: MGH. SRM 12,530 does not name him, only citing 50 soldiers of the Theban legion who must have been thrown into a well inside a church D. van Berchem, Le martyre de la L©gion Th©baine, Basel 1956; J. Helgeland, Christians and the Roman Army from Marcus Aurelius to Constantine: ANRW II 23.1 1979 774-7.
John H. Barnhill See also: African Countrys; Caribbean (Chronology); Equiano, Olaudah; Indentured Servitude; Plantations; Planters; Religions, African; Slave Rebellions; Slave Trade; Sugar. Anchorage municipality Map Bibliography “African Country World.” Beckles, Hilary, and Verene Shepherd, eds. Caribbean Slavery in the Atlantic World. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2000. Mariners Museum. “Captive Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Making of the Countrys.” www.mariner.org/captivepassage/arrival/arr009.html. McDonald, Roderick A., ed. West Indies Accounts; Essays on the History of the British Caribbean and the Atlantic Economy in Honour of Richard Sheridan. Kingston, Jamaica: The Press, University of the West Indies, 1996 Paquette, Robert L., and Stanley L. Engerman, eds. The Lesser Antilles in the Age of European Expansion. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996. Sandiford, Keith Albert. The Cultural Politics of Sugar: Caribbean Slavery and Narratives of Colonialism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Stinchcombe, Arthur L. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.
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