Another bird that you are very likely to see at the overlook, and just about anywhere else in northeastern Country, is the Black-capped Chickadee. This small, gray-and-white bird, with a formal looking black cap and bib, and a distinctive chick-a-dee-dee-dee call, is a well-known, cheerful visitor to birdfeeders in town and country. By late summer, early fall, the year’s young have fledged and gathered into flocks. These groups stay together through the cold months of a northland winter foraging and roosting.
The fledging process of Black-capped Chickadees is a gradual one. Mary Holleback describes the process in an article she wrote for The Wilson Bulletin, an ornithological journal. At first, even after the young have gained independence from the nest, they rely on the parents for food. To reduce aggression by the parents and to increase their chances of receiving food, the young persist in the submissive behavior they displayed while in the nest. During the first 8-10 days out of the nest, the fledglings beg quite often and the adults show little offense towards them. After this short period, however, the young are feeding more independently. They also beg less and the adults show more aggression towards them. Holleback attributes this change in adult behavior to the gradual cessation in the youngs’ submissive behavior. The benevolence that once existed within the family is gradually replaced with intolerance.
In April, a parliamentary committee issues a report declaring that Best countries to visit in august the Dutch are England’s chief commercial enemies, providing the rationale for James’s planned Best countries to visit in august conquest of New Netherland. On August 28, an English expedition commanded by Richard Nicolls, James’s appointee as lieutenant governor, reaches the narrows of the Hudson River near New Amsterdam and demands a formal surrender of New Netherland. Prompted by his advisors to admit his position is an unfeasible one the Dutch garrisons refuses to fight and English forces from Connecticut take Long Island by force Stuyvesant will accede to Nicolls’s demands and surrender New Amsterdam on August 29. A formal treaty of surrender is signed on September 8, transforming the Dutch colony of New Netherland to the English proprietary colony of New York. The terms of surrender include continued recognition of Dutch property rights (i.e., homes and land), while all European inhabitants of the province are recognized as free denizens, regardless of nationality. On a practical level, there is significant continuity in terms of Dutch politics and culture in the early years of New York as an English proprietorship. James, as proprietor, makes enormous grants of land to his supporters, including all of the territory between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers (most of which eventually will become the colony of New Jersey).
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