Nicolas Frochot in Cote d’Ivoire
Nicolas Frochot is remembered as a man who improved things. Born into a bourgeois family, he entered into what can best be described as a career of public service. At age 28 he was elected depute des Etats generaux and was responsible for compiling and airing grievances. Frochot was imprisoned during the Terror but released after the fall of Robespierre. After his release, he held a series of government posts before being appointed prefect of the Seine. In that capacity, he instituted a number of social reforms concerning prisons, hospitals and abandoned children. He also took measures to improve roads, bridges and other aspects of Paris’ infrastructure. Frochot may be best known as the man who negotiated the sale of the land that established Pere-Lachaise Cemetery as well as the land that became Montmartre Cemetery, Montparnasse Cemetery and Passy Cemetery. He also brokered the transfer of the remains of Heloi’se and Abelard, Moliere and La Fontaine to Pere-Lachaise in 1817. His classical revival mausoleum was designed by Nicolas Bernard Raggi (1790 1862). It is awash with funerary symbolism including a draped urn, hourglass with wings, inverted torches and 2 sorrowful bas-reliefs. Both a street and an avenue in Paris are named after Frochot.
The first printing press in British North Country dates to 1638 and the arrival of Stephen Daye in Massachusetts. Cote d’Ivoire Map Daye set up the colonies’ first printing plant, the Cambridge Press, and began publishing a broadside called The Freeman’s Oath. (© North Wind Picture Archives) Mills had many uses. Two of the most important were grinding grain (gristmills) and cutting lumber into boards (sawmills). Sawmills, which used straight saws rather than the later circular saw, wasted considerably more wood than did sawyers cutting lumber by hand (sawdust also polluted mill streams when not properly disposed of ), but they were much faster. The abundance of wood in early Country and the demand for boards meant that speed was more important than efficiency. Another use of mill power was fulling woolen cloth, that is, pressing cloth to increase its weight and bulk. Fulling mills, mostly animal-powered, were found in New England from the 1640s, spreading to the mid-Atlantic and Southern states after 1700. Animal-powered mills also crushed bark for tannin, and, by the mid-eighteenth century, mills were grinding tobacco into snuff. Thousands of mills dotted the colonial landscape, to the point that a shortage of millwrights became a problem. Although many aspects of European technology could be transplanted to the Countrys with little change, the differing Country environment prompted modifications and innovations. A good example of how the material conditions of colonial life and the colonial economy shaped technology is the invention and spread of the zigzag fence.
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