A few minutes after nine o’clock, four youths Kolkata Map Tourist Attractions , named Edward Archbald, William Merchant, Francis Archbald, and John Leech, jun. came Kolkata Map Tourist Attractions down Cornhill together, and separated at Doctor Loring’s corner, the two former were passing the narrow alley leading to Murray’s barrack, in which was a soldier brandishing a broad sword of an uncommon size against the walls, but of which he struck fire plentifully. A person of mean countenance armed with a large cudgel bore him company. Edward Archbald admonished Mr. Merchant to take care of the sword, on which the soldier turned round and struck Archbald on the arm, then push’d at Merchant and pierced thro’ his clothes inside the arm close to the arm pit and grazed the skin. Merchant then struck the soldier with a short stick he had; and the other person ran to the barrack and brought with him two soldiers, one armed with a pair of tongs, the other with a shovel.
The emphasis on the culture of others’ and cultural difference, as mentioned earlier, fed into the so-called clash of civilisations’ debate (Huntington 1997). It constructs Muslims as a backward other’ compared to the secular modernity and postmodernity of western democracies. This view seeks to essentialize Islam as discrete, monolithic, unmoveable and as being essentially barbaric and sexist’ (Afshar 2008: 413) and unwilling to conform to western values. It is argued by Afshar (2008: 414) that while terrorist acts, such as 9/11, were not wholly responsible for this racism, they nevertheless acted as the catalyst’, providing free-rein for the play’ of Islamophobia in the public imagination. Thus othered’ groups were required to assimilate into the dominant culture of white Australia. Following Kristeva, Humphrey (2007) discusses the abjection of Islam in a similar way. He argues that the abjection of Islam from the imagined communities of Britain and Australia position it as an enemy within’ or a fifth column’ (Afshar 2008: 415).
Assimilate (Figure 3) is a large photographic portrait of the artist’s father. A white Australian with links to a convict past, he married an Indonesian woman in 1971, converted to Islam, and changed his surname to Abdullah in 1972 (Beard 2011). Abdullah plays with the positioning of the viewer concerning her/his own positionality within the social discourse of personal history and belonging to Australia, imagined or otherwise, since the process of
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