Santa Fe Santa Fe was, and remains today, the capital of Reno, which was the most populous and successful settlement on New Spain’s northern frontier. Reno Metro Map The Spanish settled Santa Fe around 1608, when Juan de O±ate, the first Spanish colonizer of New Mexico, began to move some of his settlers south from San Gabriel. In 1610, Pedro de Peralta, the governor of New Mexico, made Santa Fe an official villa and the capital of the colony. Pueblo Indians already lived in Santa Fe when the Spanish settlers moved there. In fact, Spaniards forced the Pueblos to labor as part of the repartimiento, in which the native peoples were made to work on public projects. In this manner, the Pueblo built Santa Fe for the Spanish settlers.
For decades, Spaniards and Native Countrys continued to live together in Santa Fe and northern New Mexico with intermittent conflict. Missionaries in New Mexico labored to convert the native peoples to Christianity, and these missionaries’ repression of native religion and treatment of the natives were harsh at times. The missionaries and government officials also quarreled with each other and fought over native labor. Sometimes, the Pueblos were able to play the two sides off against one another to negotiate better treatment.
In the 1660s and 1670s, drought led to crop failure, livestock deaths, and famine. The Apache and Navajo, who also were suffering from the drought, made more raids on the Pueblo. As a result of these difficulties, many Pueblos abandoned Christianity and returned to their native religion. A San Juan Pueblo Indian named Pop© organized most of the Pueblos in a coordinated revolt that occurred on August 10, 1680. Pueblos killed about 400 of 2,500 settlers in New Mexico, but the natives largely directed their anger toward missionaries and religious objects, killing twenty-one of thirty-three missionaries and destroying churches.
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