Those living outside the host communities of globalized cities of Australia, Europe and North America include Muslims, Indigenous people, refugees, immigrants and so-called ethnics’. As Abdullah is a Muslim, a brief aside is necessary to outline some relevant information concerning Muslims in Australia in order to contextualize his work. As a group, Muslims constitute 1.7 per cent of the Australian population (DIAC 2006). Almost a third of Muslims are second generation Australians and young Muslims aged 15-24 years are almost twice as likely to be unemployed compared to their non-Muslim counterparts which, according to a significant study, has implications for their sense of belonging to their own and the wider community (Hassan 2009: 9). Muslims in Australia have a similar educational profile of attainment to non-Muslims (ABS 2009); however, their achievement does not translate into increased financial, social or cultural capital for young Muslims as it does for non-Muslims (Hassan 2009: 6). The reasons for their economic marginality include geographic location, the non-recognition of qualifications gained overseas, racial prejudice and systemic discrimination (Hassan 2009:11). Claims of discrimination are based on the findings of a report from a small sample that found what most migrants know too well – that a foreign name is less likely to land the applicant a job (Martin 2009).
In addition to the racial and religious discrimination Muslims face in Australia, they have also been subject to a torrent of negative media reporting that emphasize[s] cultural explanations for individual behaviour’ (Humphrey 2007). They face a relentless questioning and scrutiny of their identity as a result of recent events including the global terrorism of 9/11, the Bali bombing in 2002, the Cronulla riots1 and the Danish cartoon controversy of 2005, the comments of Mufti Al-Hilaly on women in 2007,2 the banning of the head scarf in France, and opposition to the building of Mosques in cities across North America, Europe and Australia.3 These events and others have led to social and economic marginalization of Muslims where stereotypes abound – that they cannot or will not integrate, they want Islamic law, support terrorism and actively oppress women, despite the fact that all of these assumptions have been refuted by a recent study that explores [w]hat Australian Muslims really think’ (Rane et al. 2010). While there is a view that Islamic theology is responsible for religious radicalism with the fear that they may turn to more radical sects of Islam’ (Issues Deliberation 2007), the alienation of Muslims is more likely to be a product of social and economic exclusion that denies them the opportunity to belong to the wider community (Hassan 2009: 11). This disadvantage is compounded by the view that Muslim youth is alienated from so-called mainstream values and therefore more open to the dangers of radicalization. The resulting alienation makes Muslims more vulnerable to such adaptations as innovation, retreatism and radicalism’ (Hassan 2009: 10).
A fortified stronghold. Bawdy house. A brothel. Bayonet Togo Map . A dagger-like blade adapted to fit on the muzzle of a rifle or musket for Togo Map use in close combat. Belles-lettres.
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