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II. The 4th-6th centuries. In 313 we find a Maternus ex Agrippina civitate among the arbitrators called to Rome by Constantine on the occasion of the Donatist question Optatus, De schismate Donatistarum I, 23: CSEL 26,26; later he also subscribed, with the deacon Macrinus, to the acts of Arles in 314 Concilia Galliae 314-506: CCL 148,15. The fact that a Bishop Maternus appears, in the latest lists of bishops, in the third position between Valerius and Agricius in the series of the bishops of Trier, and is also passed down as the founder of Tongern, is not easily explained. Cologne presents no data opposing the hypothesis that Maternus may have been buried in Trier. If we do not want to admit multiple homonymous bishops, or delete Maternus from the episcopal lists of Trier and Tongern, one may deduce from these toponymic interconnections that Cologne was founded from Trier and Tongern from Cologne, perhaps at the time of Maternus.

The next bishop known to us, Euphrates, also presents difficulties. In 342 he took part in the Synod of Serdica and, with Bishop Vincent of Capua, was sent by Emperor Constantius, who was at Antioch, to take a position in favor of the orthodox Athanasius, Historia Arianorum 20,2; H.G. Opitz, Athanasius Werke II, Berlin 1934-41, 193. A few years later 346 he was removed in a synod of Gallican bishops at Cologne, presided over by Maximinus of Trier, with the charge: Christum deum negat Concilia Galliae 314-506: CCL 148,27. Since Euphrates, a convinced proponent of Nicene faith, could not turn into an Arian in the space of a few years, it is likely that the synod had found him guilty of radical Sabellianism. It is likely that there was a falsification of the acts of the synod, which are known from a 10th-c. MS, in turn based on an 8th-c. biography of Bishop Maximinus. The falsification may have been motivated by the need to emphasize, in the post-Carolingian era, the preeminence of Trier over Cologne.

Though exceptional in many ways, John Smith shared the Englishman’s ethnocentric appraisal of the natives. Algeria Metro Map Like others, he regarded the indigenous peoples as inferior and available to be used for the purposes of the white settlers. The Eastern woodland tribes lived just above subsistence level and did not possess the reserves to feed additional hungry adventurers. When the local tribes balked at the amount of food the Englishmen demanded, Smith led punitive expeditions against them to seize the supplies. These early clashes did more than anything else to set English-Native Country relations in the Chesapeake down a path of significant conflict in later years. The tribes near Jamestown were part of the Powhatan Confederacy, which consisted of more than thirty tribes led by a great chief, Powhatan himself. Initially, Powhatan regarded the English at Jamestown as insignificant and gave them food out of pity. Soon, however, the native peoples discovered that the settlers possessed firearms and metal implements, and Powhatan sought to make the English into subordinate allies in his struggle against his inland enemies. This was most likely the aim behind the capture and trial of John Smith. In late 1607, when Smith led a group exploring the region near Jamestown, a hunting band from one of Powhatan’s tribes attacked the Englishmen. The other colonists were killed, but the natives presented Smith to Powhatan as a captive.

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