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Previous to 1950, anybody who went to Hawk Ridge probably did so to hunt the large birds. In 1950, the Duluth Bird Club (now the Duluth Audubon Society) put a halt to the slaughter by getting the city to enforce a prohibition against shooting within city limits. In 1972, the City of Duluth purchased the 115-acre Hawk Ridge Nature Reserve with funds donated by the Duluth Audubon Society. Today the Society manages the reserve for study and enjoyment under a trust agreement with the city.

Hawk Ridge provides over 2.5 miles of hiking trails. In addition to a good view of hawks from Summit Ledges in the fall, this 1.4 mile hike also provides a chance to see different forest types. Oaks dominate the dryer ridges, with balsams, spruces, and birches in the wetter areas. Paint blazes on trees and rocks indicate the trails, with blazes of different colors and shapes used to indicate the different trails.


0.0 The hike begins on Ole’s Trail which leaves the Main Overlook in a northerly direction, away from the lake. Ole’s Trail is marked with red dots. After 325 feet, reach Ole’s Knob. Here the trail makes a turn to the right and descends into the forest.

0.2 Trail intersection with the Amity Trail going right and left.

Continue straight ahead following the red dots. In about 300 feet, reach Middle Knob which provides limited views of Duluth. From here the trail bears left.

0.4 Intersection with the Ridge Loop Trail (marked with yellow dots) going left and right; bear left. In 20 feet the trail forks; bear right.

0.5 The trail passes under a power line.

0.6 Summit Ledges; a good vantage point for hawk watching during the fall migration when there’s a northwest wind. The Ridge Loop Trail continues across the ledges and begins to descend. In 150 feet, bear left passing the Pine Woods Trail (marked with blue diamonds) on the right.

0.8 Bear right on the Spruce Knob Trail leaving the Ridge Loop

Trail. The Spruce Knob Trail is marked with orange diamonds.

0.9 Spruce Knob; bear left, staying on the Spruce Knob Trail, passing the Talus Trail (marked with red diamonds) on the right.

1.0 The trail emerges from the forest underneath the power line.

Mary Rowlandson then entered upon three months of captivity with her three children. Her infant Sarah died in her arms soon after their capture, while Rowlandson became separated from the other two when her captor sold her to another Narragansett. She may have decided to write her story as a means of dealing with the trauma of these events and of understanding the experience in Puritan terms. The best country to visit In an era when women very rarely published, Rowlandson was likely prompted to seek an audience as part of Increase Mather’s project to demonstrate the role of divine providence in the shaping of human lives and events. The Soveraignty and Goodness of God is a typical captivity tale in that it is the story of a morally pure white woman, who confronts the hellish terror of life among savages. The account is divided into twenty removes for the twenty occasions when Rowlandson and her captors broke camp and traveled. Biblical references are included to show that God was testing Rowlandson and her fellow colonists through the medium of a destructive war.

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