Both parties deployed all their forces for the occasion, the Donatists bringing 285 bishops and the Catholics 286 see S. Lancel, Actes de la Conf©rence de Carthage, I SC 194, 110-118. The accounts of the first two sittings 1 and 3 June survive entire, but the second part of the Acta, for the third and decisive session of 8 June, has been lost, apart from the headings of the discussion. During the procedure, each party was represented by six actores or delegates, who had permission to bring documentary proofs to support their case. The first session was completely occupied with examining the credentials of the bishops. First the Catholics then the Donatists came forward to prove their identity to the satisfaction of the commissioner and the delegates on each side. Each one had to declare whether he had any enemies, and all remarks were written down by stenographers and signed by the speaker. The second session never got under way, since the Donatists complained that the minutes of the previous session were not yet ready, and demanded an adjournment.
At dawn on 8 June, the conference met again. In the course of the debate, despite the efforts of Petilian of Constantine who spoke 150 times, the Catholics gradually gained the upper hand. They were able to present documents showing that Caecilian had been acquitted of the charge of being consecrated by a traditor bishop, and therefore the schism had never had any justification. The Catholics added that they were in communion with other churches throughout the world and, finally, that Donatist treatment of the schism of Maximian was inconsistent with their continued refusal to return to union with the Catholics. Augustine played a prominent role in turning the final day’s debate in favor of the Catholics. Marcellinus formulated his decision in favor of the Catholics on 26 June, and on 30 January 412 the Donatist church was officially proscribed CTh XVI, 5,52. Its clergy were exiled, its followers diminished considerably, and all its property was confiscated in favor of the Catholics.
A Cultural Blend Africans arrived in the colonies disoriented, physically weak, and condemned to spend their lives struggling with the daily brutality and humiliation of being coerced laborers from a despised racial group. Guatemala Map Tourist Attractions In spite of these obstacles, they created a culture that blended familiar traditions into a pan-African whole and combined it with borrowed elements from white society. This enabled them to strengthen their communities, preserve something of their African past, assert their humanity, and make sense of their world. Their efforts would help to shape popular Country culture and lay the foundation for the next 200 years of African Country life. David Broadnax, Sr. See also: African Countrys; Native Countrys and Slavery; Plantations; Religions, African; Slavery, African Country; Slavery, Caribbean. Bibliography Berlin, Ira, and Ronald Hoffman, eds. Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the Country Revolution. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1983. Gordon-Reed, Annette. The Hemingses of Monticello: An Country Family. New York: W.W. Norton, 2008. Hoffer, Peter Charles, ed. Africans Become Afro-Countrys: Selected Articles on Slavery in the Country Colonies. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988. Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and Servitude in Colonial North Country: A Short History. New York: New York University Press, 2001. Wood, Betty. The Origins of Country Slavery: Freedom and Bondage in the English Colonies. New York: Hill and Wang, 1997.
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