The Separation of the Couple From Lubbock
One of the most evocative funerary sculptures in Montparnasse apparently isn’t a tomb or a cenotaph. The sculpture, which depicts a woman entering her tomb as she blows a kiss to a grief-stricken man, was actually made for the Jardin du Luxembourg (Luxembourg Gardens near the Pantheon). However, the sculpture was reportedly judged too obscene for the gardens and moved to Montparnasse Cemetery in 1965. Why La Separation du Couple (The Separation of the Couple) was judged to be obscene is not known. The sculpture has been attributed to de Max.
Jewish artillery officer Alfred Dreyfus was at the center of a scandal known as the Dreyfus Affair that fractured the French government and French citizens. Alfred Dreyfus was born into a prosperous Jewish family but rather than go into the family textile business, he entered the military and attained the rank of artillery officer. In 1894, French counter-intelligence agents discovered that someone in the military was leaking artillery information to the Germans. Dreyfus became a convenient target because he had earlier protested against a low test score he had received and was perceived as a Jewish troublemaker. Dreyfus was quickly charged, tried and convicted of treason and sent to Devil’s Island in French Guiana on January 5, 1895 to serve a life sentence. In August 1896, new evidence emerged that it was in fact another officer, Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy, who was the traitor. The military tried to cover up the information, but it was leaked to the press amid charges of anti-Semitism The charges of anti-Semitism fueled a debate between intellectuals and artists and supporters of the military and government. Eventually, Alfred Dreyfus was pardoned and made a Knight of the Legion of Honor, but the proverbial Pandora’s Box had been opened and the debate raged on for many years.
In spite of the abuse he had endured, Alfred Dreyfus remained loyal to the military and served as a Lieutenant Colonel in World War I. A statue of Dreyfus holding a broken sword can be found near the exit of the Notre-Dame-des-Champs Metro station. A copy of the statue is at the Museum of Jewish Art and History in the Hotel de Saint-Aignan at 71, rue du Temple.
Soon Winthrop and other leaders moved the seat of the Puritan settlement to Boston; here, a civil government based upon the royal charter was soon established. Lubbock Map Two distinctions in this early government of the Massachusetts Bay Colony are noteworthy: First, a theocracy established the joint rule of both civil and church authorities (as opposed to the later Country evolution of a separation of church and state). Second, by autumn of 1630, a system was developed that allowed freemen (citizens), rather than only the company’s stockholders, the power to elect the colony’s leaders.
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