The Mexican Revolution leads to massive Mexican migration to the United States.
The manifesto El Plan de San Diego calls for armed struggle against exploitation and the return of lands to Mexican Americans.
Passage of the Immigration Act of 1917 curbs migration into the United States by requiring an entry tax and a literacy test.
Cruz Azul Mexicana is founded in San Antonio. The organization aids impoverished Mexican Americans and emphasizes education.
Texas’s white primary act formally disenfranchises many impoverished Texans.
Congress creates the U.S. Border Patrol.
The New York stock market crashes, and the Great Depression begins.
The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is established in Corpus Christi.
Salvatierra v. Del Rio ISD challenges the segregation of Mexican American students in public schools.
Emma Tenayuca leads a strike against the pecan-shelling companies in San Antonio.
1964 The Bracero Program, a contract labor program established by the
United States and Mexico, allows Mexicans to temporarily work in the United States.
Smith v. Allwright outlaws the state’s all-white primaries.
Hector Garcia of Corpus Christi founds the American G.I. Forum of Texas.
Operation Wetback repatriates more than one million laborers in the United States to Mexico.
Viva Kennedy Clubs form across Texas.
The Political Association of Spanish-Speaking Organizations (PASSO) is formed.
The U.S. Civil Rights Act outlaws racial discrimination in public accommodations and employment.
The Twenty-Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution outlaws the poll tax.
The Voting Rights Act is passed.