The one-time provincial town on the Lower-Rhine first blossomed around 1400. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Diisseldorf became a capital, namely of the Duchies of Jiilich, Cleves and Berg. There is manifold evidence of the golden age when Duke Johann Wilhelm, the ever popular Jan Wellem, held court here (1679-1716). Art was collected and created, much was celebrated, built and squandered. Only the industrialisation of the nineteenth century brought about new prosperity after long periods of turbulence and frequent war. But of course, even ‘Prussian’ Diisseldorf had its Rhenish life-style and way of thought.