Venezuela Map

Arthur E. Chapman See also: Bible; Christ and Christianity; Ministers and the Ministry; Religion (Chronology); Religion (Essay). Venezuela Map Bibliography Boorstin, Daniel. Venezuela: The Colonial Experience. New York: Random House, Vintage Books, 1958. Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Intellectual Life of New England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1965. Stout, Harry S. The New England Soul: Preaching and Religious Culture in Colonial New England. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Serra, Fray Jun­pero (17131784) Fray (Father) Jun­pero Serra established more than twenty Franciscan missions in California in the late eighteenth century. His legacy is a complex one of missionary work, personal conviction, courage, violence, and the destruction of the cultures of California’s native peoples.

While Pope John Paul II beatified Serra in 1987, many native Californians oppose Serra’s progression toward sainthood, citing his record of cruelty to their forebears. Others, including academics, have criticized the beatification as well. Serra’s supporters claim he was simply a man of his times. Jun­pero Serra was born on Mallorca, a Spanish island in the Mediterranean, in 1713. Though not wealthy, he attended religious schools and displayed an aptitude for the life of the mind. While still in his teens, he was ordained as a priest. From the late 1730s to 1749, Serra was a professor of philosophy. He gave up a prestigious academic post to seek converts and a martyr’s death in the Countrys. The Spanish missionary Fray Jun­pero Serra has been called the Apostle of California for his work there in the late 1700s, including the founding of twenty-one Franciscan missions. He was beatified in 1987. (Courtesy of University of Southern California, on behalf of the USC Specialized Libraries and Archival Collections)

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