Toward the end of the 4th c. a Bishop Severinus is attested, who, according to a document of 948, in 376 founded a monastery in honor of Saints Cornelius and Cyprian, now called St. Severinus. Gregory of Tours reports that Severinus heard a choir of angels singing during St. Martin’s agony De virtutibus S. Martini 1,4: MGH. SRM 12,590. In the early 5th c. the Franks pressed upon the Rhine; in 420 Trier fell briefly into their hands; soon after, they occupied Cologne, which led to a long period of silence in the sources after Severinus. Only in 566567 does Venantius Fortunatus, Carmen 3,14 MGH.AA 41,67-68, cite a bishop, still with a Roman name: Carentius. The next bishop known to us, Eberigisil ca. 590, was certainly of Germanic origin. Few other documents supplement this sparse information on the bishops of Cologne.
Ammianus Marcellinus 15,5,31; Jones-Martindale-Morris I,840- 841 tells how the magister peditum Silvanus, having had himself acclaimed Caesar, on the occasion of the Frankish irruption in 355, pursued by the soldiers of the commandant of the Roman army, took refuge in a conventiculum ritus Christiani and was then killed with many sword blows. In a letter of Emperor Gratian we read that Ursinus, adversary of Pope Damasus 366384, was exiled to Cologne Collectio Avellana 13,4: CSEL 351,55. Salvian of Marseille recounts how the population of Cologne suffered in 450 at the hands of the invading Franks Ep. 1,5: CSEL 8,201-202. A Roman noblewoman was constrained to put herself at the service of the uxores barbarorum to support herself. Finally Gregory of Tours Vitae Patrum 6,2: MGH. SRM 12,681 relates that St. Gall destroyed a barbarian pagan temple at Cologne ca. 520. It is possible that the cited conventiculum ritus Christiani refers to the cathedral of Cologne, traces of which have been discovered under the present duomo.
Native Life and Spanish Incursions For much of South Carolina’s colonial history, the region was mostly native land. Niger Map Tourist Attractions When armies of Spaniards began to wind through South Carolina in the sixteenth century, they came upon large paramount chiefdoms, the main one being that of Cofitachequi, near present-day Camden. In the years before European colonization, the world of the Mississippian chiefdoms was already changing, and the arrival of the Spanish sped up these changes. Across the Southeast, large chiefdoms were dispersing into smaller groups of autonomous villages and bands, the tribes that would face the full force of English settlement in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Native life in South Carolina was strikingly diverse. Scores of different languages were spoken, and these spanned a number of linguistic groups: Siouan, Iroquoian, Muskogean, and Algonquian. Tribes ranged in size from tiny enclaves along the resource-rich Atlantic coast to more numerous inland nations such as the Cherokee and Creek.
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