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III. Church buildings. Archaeological finds give no proof of the existence of a Christian church at Cologne in the 3rd or 4th c. The most recent excavations under the present cathedral have not confirmed theories regarding a 1st-c. temple on the site, a pre-Constantinian domus ecclesiae, similar to that at Dura Europos or to the presumed titular churches at Rome, a 4th-c. baptistery, or an episcopal house. It is true that the first layer excavated, from the 2nd to 3rd c., contains remains of two rooms furnished with heating systems, similar to the early Christian church of Aquileia. While floor mosaics at Aquileia, however, give indubitable proof of liturgical use, at Cologne there is no such trace. The same is true for the pool from the period, ca. 70 m from the E wall of the houses. Since here also there are no indications of liturgical use, the hypothesis of an early Christian baptistery can no longer be sustained.

One can only say that on this site there was a continual use of pre-Constantinian buildings with various alterations and reconstructions, to the point of leading, in the 2nd half of the 6th c., to the certain construction of a three-aisled basilica, dimensions 30 x 25 m, with the addition of a baptistery. It remains to be ascertained whether the wall structures built on Roman foundations can be traced back to a Roman-period church; they are near the present-day Churches of St. George and St. Peter near the city wall and have no cemeterial area. It could have been a parochial church, as distinct from the episcopal church and located in the crowded suburbium.

The Spanish never succeeded in establishing a colony in the interior of South Carolina, although Franciscans established some missions in the Sea Islands. Raleigh Metro Map Nevertheless, diseases introduced to South Carolina by European explorers devastated native communities; when the English began to colonize the area in the closing decades of the eighteenth century, they entered a shattered world. English Beginnings in South Carolina Founded in 1670, South Carolina was a relatively late addition to the English colonial world. To the north, Virginia and Massachusetts Bay were growing and prospering.

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In the Caribbean, Barbados was flourishing as a result of a booming sugar trade. Charles II’s restored monarchy had advanced English colonization throughout the Countrys, adding New York and securing Jamaica. Prominent men who had remained loyal to the king began to call in favors, and Anthony Ashley Cooper who would soon become Lord Shaftesbury led a renewed drive to plant an English colony in the Country Southeast. To aid in this task, Shaftesbury drew up the Fundamental Constitutions, a series of guidelines that would set up a utopian, hierarchical society in South Carolina. It bears mentioning that Shaftesbury’s personal secretary was John Locke, though what effect the philosopher actually had on these guidelines is unknown.

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