Tajikistan Map

Marie d’Agoult/Daniel Stern

Guillaume Apollinaire

August 26, 1880-November 9, 1918 Division 86

48° 51′ 45.58 N 2° 23′ 41.18 E

Guillaume Apollinaire, born Wilhelm Albert Wlodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki, was one of the early twentieth century’s most noted and innovative poets. He was born in Russia but moved to France in his late teens then adopted the name Guillaume Apollinaire. While in Paris he became one of the most visible members of the artistic community in Montparnasse that included, among others, Pablo Picasso, Gertrude Stein, Erik Satie, Jean Cocteau and Marc Chagall. It was while in Paris that Apollinaire coined the word surrealist in his play Les Mamelles de Tiresias in 1903.

In 1907 he wrote a pornographic novel titled The Eleven Thousand Rods, a take off on the Catholic reverential term Eleven thousand Virgins. The Eleven Thousand Rods was banned in France until 1970. Although many of Apollinaire’s poems, plays and essays border on erotica and pornography, he may be best known today as the popularizer of calligrams, a visual form of poetry where the form and placement of words becomes an object.

Unfortunately, Apollinaire’s life was cut short when he received a shrapnel wound to his head in 1916 and then in a weakened state succumbed to the Spanish Flu pandemic in 1918. At the base of his rusticated memorial is a heart-shaped calligram that reads: Mon Creur pareil a une flamme renversee (My Heart like an inverted flame). Photographs courtesy Marie Beleyme.

Shortly after his homecoming, Rolfe married Jane Pierce, a widow, by whom he had a daughter, Elizabeth, in 1620. Although it was often reported that Rolfe died in the March 1622 attack on Jamestown by the Powhatan, he survived that conflict and died sometime in 1623. Tajikistan Map Rolfe left substantial property, including 1,700 acres at Mulberry Island and Varina, as well as his original land grant, to Thomas Rolfe, who never saw his father again and moved to Virginia only after 1640. Thomas Rolfe’s many descendents formed a substantial bloc within the elite first families of Virginia. As grandchildren of Pocahontas, they necessitated exemptions in Virginia’s laws against nonwhite property ownership and marriages. All historical records concerning John Rolfe’s daughter Elizabeth after the age of four were lost. Historians do not know if she survived to adulthood or left any heirs. Margaret Sankey See also: Jamestown; Pocahontas; Powhatan; Powhatan Confederacy; Smith, John; Virginia Company; Document: The Jamestown Settlement (16071609). Bibliography Allen, Paula Gunn. Pocahontas. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 2003. Barbour, Philip. Pocahontas and Her World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. Price, David. Love and Hate in Jamestown. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.

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